Europe Pushes Tech Into Detox
The EU is banning six hazardous substances in electronics, aiding the
ecology but requiring challenging adjustments by firms everywhere.
By Evelyn Iritani
Times Staff Writer
April 22, 2006
GERALD BARKER IS IN THE business of making people feel better — not
His company, Coherent Inc., makes sophisticated machines that produce
high-performance lasers. The light beams are used to perform glaucoma
surgery and to produce stents that are implanted in arteries to ward
off heart attacks, among other applications.
But some of the 50,000 materials used to manufacture its products
contained minute amounts of six hazardous substances, such as lead and
mercury. So for two years, Barker has been eliminating the harmful
components. He has replaced the lead solder in the circuit boards,
jettisoned offending plastic insulation and even found less toxic
paint for the company logo.
The Santa Clara, Calif.-based company wants to ensure that it can keep
exporting its high-end laser technology to European Union nations
after July 1, when governments begin barring the sale of electronic
products containing more than traces of the six banned substances. The
pending regulations affect everything from computers and cellphones to
automated teller machines and toy trains.
Coherent, whose annual sales total more than $500 million, has spent
millions of dollars working with its suppliers to identify the
substances, locate environmentally friendly substitutes and redesign
and test its modified products.
Barker, Coherent's vice president of environmental initiatives, isn't
convinced that Europe's rules will make the world a lot safer,
pointing out that the electronics industry accounts for just 2% of the
world's lead. But with 28% of his firm's sales in Europe, he can't
risk running afoul of the new law.
"The EU has grabbed the green jersey, and they are in the lead," said
Barker, whose firm increased its research budget this year to handle
the new requirements. "Everybody is going to need to fall into line."
By leveraging its clout as the world's largest market, the 25-country
EU has triggered a global shift toward green manufacturing that is
expected to cost manufacturers billions of dollars. Proponents say the
requirements will lead to fewer toxic landfills and safer water and
food. The EU is also in the process of adopting mandatory recycling
programs for the electronic and electrical products covered by the
hazardous substances law.
Other governments are following suit, eager to boost their
environmental credentials and worried about becoming dumping grounds
for products that can't be sold in Europe.
China, which some call the world's workshop, has said it will impose
its own version of Europe's hazardous substances standards next year.
And though the Bush administration has refused to join in, a number of
states, including California, are imposing similar measures.
The state's hazardous substances ban, which was passed in 2003 and
will take effect in January, does not include flame retardants and
applies to fewer devices, such as cathode-ray tubes, computers and
Electronic waste has become a serious problem, particularly in rapidly
developing countries such as China with weak environmental protection.
The substances on the European hit list — lead, mercury, cadmium,
hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated
diphenyl ethers (the latter two are flame retardants) — have been
linked to a variety of health problems.
In the U.S, the Environmental Protection Agency estimates that more
than 220 million tons of electronic waste are discarded every year,
with massive loads of lead and other heavy metals dumped into
John Frey, manager of environmental strategies at Hewlett-Packard Co.,
said the European regulation was fast becoming a de facto global
standard. That is why his company and many others are bringing all of
their products into compliance, not just those heading for Europe.
As their biggest customers shift gears, suppliers of commodities from
steel to microcircuits to paint have been forced to come up with safer
versions of substances that have been used in manufacturing for
Hewlett-Packard, an industry leader in environmentally friendly
methods, even revised its recycled plastics program because it used
ground-up inkjet cartridges and plastic bottles that sometimes
contained banned substances.
"This has caused unprecedented turmoil in the electronics industry
supply chain," said Bijan Dastmalchi, president of Symphony Consulting
of Sunnyvale, Calif., which works with high-tech companies.
Dastmalchi and other manufacturing experts said many U.S. electronics
firms, particularly small operations involved in customized work, are
unprepared for the global reforms. They predict that there will be
delayed shipments and price surges in the coming months resulting from
last-minute discoveries of hazardous substances or shortages of the
new, approved versions of steel plating and other commonly used
Companies may also find it harder to sell products or components that
don't meet the European standards.
Some products, such as medical devices, aircraft and the sophisticated
servers that run the world's financial data networks, are exempt from
the July 1 deadline. The EU agreed that the manufacturers of those
products should not be required to switch until the substitute
materials have been thoroughly tested for reliability and safety.
Makers of some products, such as fluorescent light bulbs containing
mercury, were exempted because no good replacements exist.
Solder is used in many parts of the manufacturing process, including
the assembly of electronic circuit boards. Lead is commonly used in
solder because it allows the material to melt at a lower temperature
and keeps it smooth. Lead-free solder, which generally contains tin or
copper, must be treated at a higher temperature.
It is also susceptible to "tin whiskers," a phenomenon in which tiny
threads of tin sprout from the soldered area and can cause short
circuits. Products using lead-free solder often must be redesigned
because individual components can't withstand the higher processing
"There's very little data available right now on the reliability of
the alternatives to lead," said Jean-Philippe Brisson, a New York
attorney and expert on the European regulations.
Most companies that sell into the EU, and many more that don't, are
asking their suppliers to provide documents proving that their
products comply with the new regulations. A slip-up could be costly,
particularly if competitors get wind of it. In 2001, Dutch officials,
acting on a tip, confiscated 1.3 million Sony PlayStations because
their power cords violated legal limits on cadmium, they said.
"The company that's the most at risk here is the company whose brand
name appears on the product," Brisson said.
Small firms such as Electronic Source Co., a Van Nuys assembler of
circuit boards for computer networking systems and satellites, are
struggling to meet the new requirements. President Scott Alyn said he
would have to spend at least $50,000 on a second giant soldering
machine so he could produce two lines of products, one of which would
meet the European standards.
To prevent contamination, Alyn has segregated his supplies and
retrained his staff to handle the new materials.
"I think we are going to have headaches that persist for the next five
years," he said.
Jeff Krull, vice president of product development for Shure Inc., an
Illinois manufacturer of high-end microphones and other audio gear,
said executives were "biting our nails" nine months ago about whether
their suppliers could meet the tougher environmental standards. Shure
sells about 30% of its products in Europe.
But Krull said the producers of fire-retardant materials and laminates
went into "rapid development mode" and appeared to be meeting the
"We're riding the wave of what the industry is capable of providing," he said.
Shure had a few low-volume products, such as older-generation audio
mixers, that couldn't profitably be brought into compliance. They will
be discontinued. Krull estimates that the compliance program has cost
his firm as much as $5 million.
Shure will meet the July 1 deadline "by hook or by crook" for its
European production, Krull said. But the company will also be able to
sell in the U.S. any inventory that doesn't meet the higher standards.
"This gives us a little bit of a safety valve," he said.
That's exactly what worries people such as Charles Corcoran, an
official with the California Department of Toxic Substances Control.
He said part of the idea behind the California law, which takes effect
in January, was to "protect the state from those toxic materials being