HPI-1 measurements from the United Nations
Source Louis Proyect
Date 00/11/14/12:48


The human poverty index is a multidimensional measure of poverty. It brings
together in one composite index the deprivation in four basic dimensions of
human life-a long and healthy life, knowledge, economic provisioning and
social inclusion. These dimensions of deprivation are the same for both
developing and industrialized countries. Only the indicators to measure
them differ, to reflect the realities in these countries and because of
data limitations.

For developing countries the HPI-1 measures human poverty. Deprivation in a
long and healthy life is measured by the percentage of people born today
not expected to survive to age 40, deprivation in knowledge by the adult
illiteracy rate and deprivation in economic provisioning by the percentage
of people lacking access to health services and safe water and the
percentage of children under five who are moderately or severely
underweight. Two points. First, for economic provisioning in developing
countries, public provisioning is more important than private income. At
the same time, more than four-fifths of private income is spent on food.
Thus in developing countries lack of access to health services and safe
water and the level of malnutrition capture the deprivation in economic
provisioning more practically than other variables. Second, the absence of
a suitable indicator and lack of data prevent the human poverty index from
reflecting the deprivation in social inclusion in developing countries.

For industrialized countries the HPI-2 measures human poverty. Deprivation
in a long and healthy life is measured by the percentage of people born
today not expected to survive to age 60, deprivation in knowledge by the
adult functional illiteracy rate, deprivation in economic provisioning by
the incidence of income poverty (since private income is the larger source
of economic provisioning in industrialized countries) and deprivation in
social inclusion by long-term unemployment. The components and the results
of the HPI-1 and HPI-2 are presented in indicator tables 4 and 5. The
technical note presents a detailed discussion of the methodology for
constructing he two indices.


Calculated for 85 countries, the HPI-1 reveals the following (table 5): The
HPI-1 ranges from 3.9% in Uruguay to 64.7% in Niger. Nine countries have an
HPI-1 of less than 10%: Bahrain, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Fiji, Jordan,
Panama, Trinidad and Tobago and Uruguay. These developing countries have
overcome severe levels of poverty. For 29 countries-more than a third of
those for which the HPI-1 was calculated- the HPI-1 exceeds 33%, implying
that at least a third of their people suffer from human poverty. Others
have further to go. The HPI-1 exceeds 50% in Burkina Faso, the Central
African Republic, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mozambique, Nepal and
Niger. A comparison of HDI and HPI-1 values shows he distribution of
achievement in human progress. Human development can be distributed more
equitably-as in countries with a relatively low HPI-1 for a given HDI
value-or less equitably-as in those with a relatively low HDI value for a
given HPI-1 (figure 4). Policies play a big par in determining how
achievements in human progress are distributed.

1 Uruguay
2 Costa Rica
3 Cuba********************!!!!!!!
4 Chile
5 Trinidad and Tobago
6 Fiji
7 Jordan
8 Panama
9 Bahrain
10 Guyana
11 Colombia
12 Mexico
13 Lebanon
14 Mauritius
15 Venezuela
16 Jamaica
17 Qatar
18 Malaysia
19 Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
20 Dominican Republic
21 Brazil
22 Philippine
23 Paraguay
24 Turkey
25 Peru
26 Ecuador
27 Bolivia
28 United Arab Emirate
29 Thailand
30 China
31 Iran, Islamic Rep. of
32 Syrian Arab Republic
33 South Africa
34 El Salvador
35 Sri Lanka
36 Tunisia
37 Cape Verde
38 Oman
39 Honduras
40 Lesotho
41 Nicaragua
42 Algeria
43 Maldives
44 Namibia
45 Swaziland
46 Indonesia
47 Viet Nam
48 Botswana
49 Guatemala
50 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
51 Kenya
52 Zimbabwe
53 Myanmar
54 Congo
55 Egypt
56 Iraq
57 Comoro
58 India
59 Ghana
60 Sudan
61 Rwanda
62 Nigeria
63 Togo
64 Zambia
65 Morocco
66 Cameroon
67 Uganda
68 Pakistan
69 Malawi
70 Bangladesh
71 Haiti
72 Côte d' Ivoire
73 Senegal
74 Benin
75 Gambia
76 Yemen
77 Mauritania
78 Guinea-Bissau
79 Mozambique
80 Nepal
81 Mali
82 Central African Republic
83 Ethiopia
84 Burkina Faso
85 Niger

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