The ocean is broken
By GREG RAY
IT was the silence that made this voyage different from all of those before it.
Not the absence of sound, exactly.
The wind still whipped the sails and whistled in the rigging. The
waves still sloshed against the fibreglass hull.
And there were plenty of other noises: muffled thuds and bumps and
scrapes as the boat knocked against pieces of debris.
What was missing was the cries of the seabirds which, on all previous
similar voyages, had surrounded the boat.
The birds were missing because the fish were missing.
Exactly 10 years before, when Newcastle yachtsman Ivan Macfadyen had
sailed exactly the same course from Melbourne to Osaka, all he'd had
to do to catch a fish from the ocean between Brisbane and Japan was
throw out a baited line.
"There was not one of the 28 days on that portion of the trip when we
didn't catch a good-sized fish to cook up and eat with some rice,"
But this time, on that whole long leg of sea journey, the total catch was two.
No fish. No birds. Hardly a sign of life at all.
"In years gone by I'd gotten used to all the birds and their noises," he said.
"They'd be following the boat, sometimes resting on the mast before
taking off again. You'd see flocks of them wheeling over the surface
of the sea in the distance, feeding on pilchards."
But in March and April this year, only silence and desolation
surrounded his boat, Funnel Web, as it sped across the surface of a
North of the equator, up above New Guinea, the ocean-racers saw a big
fishing boat working a reef in the distance.
"All day it was there, trawling back and forth. It was a big ship,
like a mother-ship," he said.
And all night it worked too, under bright floodlights. And in the
morning Macfadyen was awoken by his crewman calling out, urgently,
that the ship had launched a speedboat.
"Obviously I was worried. We were unarmed and pirates are a real worry
in those waters. I thought, if these guys had weapons then we were in
But they weren't pirates, not in the conventional sense, at least. The
speedboat came alongside and the Melanesian men aboard offered gifts
of fruit and jars of jam and preserves.
"And they gave us five big sugar-bags full of fish," he said.
"They were good, big fish, of all kinds. Some were fresh, but others
had obviously been in the sun for a while.
"We told them there was no way we could possibly use all those fish.
There were just two of us, with no real place to store or keep them.
They just shrugged and told us to tip them overboard. That's what they
would have done with them anyway, they said.
"They told us that his was just a small fraction of one day's
by-catch. That they were only interested in tuna and to them,
everything else was rubbish. It was all killed, all dumped. They just
trawled that reef day and night and stripped it of every living
Macfadyen felt sick to his heart. That was one fishing boat among
countless more working unseen beyond the horizon, many of them doing
exactly the same thing.
No wonder the sea was dead. No wonder his baited lines caught nothing.
There was nothing to catch.
If that sounds depressing, it only got worse.
The next leg of the long voyage was from Osaka to San Francisco and
for most of that trip the desolation was tinged with nauseous horror
and a degree of fear.
"After we left Japan, it felt as if the ocean itself was dead," Macfadyen said.
"We hardly saw any living things. We saw one whale, sort of rolling
helplessly on the surface with what looked like a big tumour on its
head. It was pretty sickening.
"I've done a lot of miles on the ocean in my life and I'm used to
seeing turtles, dolphins, sharks and big flurries of feeding birds.
But this time, for 3000 nautical miles there was nothing alive to be
In place of the missing life was garbage in astounding volumes.
"Part of it was the aftermath of the tsunami that hit Japan a couple
of years ago. The wave came in over the land, picked up an
unbelievable load of stuff and carried it out to sea. And it's still
out there, everywhere you look."
Ivan's brother, Glenn, who boarded at Hawaii for the run into the
United States, marvelled at the "thousands on thousands" of yellow
plastic buoys. The huge tangles of synthetic rope, fishing lines and
nets. Pieces of polystyrene foam by the million. And slicks of oil and
Countless hundreds of wooden power poles are out there, snapped off by
the killer wave and still trailing their wires in the middle of the
"In years gone by, when you were becalmed by lack of wind, you'd just
start your engine and motor on," Ivan said.
Not this time.
"In a lot of places we couldn't start our motor for fear of entangling
the propeller in the mass of pieces of rope and cable. That's an
unheard of situation, out in the ocean.
"If we did decide to motor we couldn't do it at night, only in the
daytime with a lookout on the bow, watching for rubbish.
"On the bow, in the waters above Hawaii, you could see right down into
the depths. I could see that the debris isn't just on the surface,
it's all the way down. And it's all sizes, from a soft-drink bottle to
pieces the size of a big car or truck.
"We saw a factory chimney sticking out of the water, with some kind of
boiler thing still attached below the surface. We saw a big
container-type thing, just rolling over and over on the waves.
"We were weaving around these pieces of debris. It was like sailing
through a garbage tip.
"Below decks you were constantly hearing things hitting against the
hull, and you were constantly afraid of hitting something really big.
As it was, the hull was scratched and dented all over the place from
bits and pieces we never saw."
Plastic was ubiquitous. Bottles, bags and every kind of throwaway
domestic item you can imagine, from broken chairs to dustpans, toys
And something else. The boat's vivid yellow paint job, never faded by
sun or sea in years gone past, reacted with something in the water off
Japan, losing its sheen in a strange and unprecedented way.
BACK in Newcastle, Ivan Macfadyen is still coming to terms with the
shock and horror of the voyage.
"The ocean is broken," he said, shaking his head in stunned disbelief.
Recognising the problem is vast, and that no organisations or
governments appear to have a particular interest in doing anything
about it, Macfadyen is looking for ideas.
He plans to lobby government ministers, hoping they might help.
More immediately, he will approach the organisers of Australia's major
ocean races, trying to enlist yachties into an international scheme
that uses volunteer yachtsmen to monitor debris and marine life.
Macfadyen signed up to this scheme while he was in the US, responding
to an approach by US academics who asked yachties to fill in daily
survey forms and collect samples for radiation testing - a significant
concern in the wake of the tsunami and consequent nuclear power
station failure in Japan.
"I asked them why don't we push for a fleet to go and clean up the
mess," he said.
"But they said they'd calculated that the environmental damage from
burning the fuel to do that job would be worse than just leaving the